TRACE ∴ Journal for Human-Animal Studies <p><em>Trace — Journal for Human-Animal Studies</em> is a peer-reviewed,&nbsp;fully open access online journal that&nbsp;provides a forum for research and discussion of human-animal relations from social and cultural perspectives.&nbsp;The journal&nbsp;publishes original research articles, lectiones praecursoriae, and conference reports, as well as reviews on books, art exhibitions, films, and other media. <em>Trace </em>accepts submissions in English, Finnish and Swedish.</p> Finnish Society for Human-Animal Studies (YKES ry) en-US TRACE ∴ Journal for Human-Animal Studies 2343-0591 <p>When sending a manuscript the author(s) accept <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the digital publishing contract</a> (please open the link and read it!). The publishing contract covers the publication of the manuscript on the digital versions of the <em>Trace</em> journal according to the Open Access principles and the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license<strong>&nbsp;</strong>[<a href=""></a>].&nbsp; (NB! Changed on January 28, 2020!) The conditions allow the author to retain copyright to his/her work and anyone to copy and distribute it for free in any medium and form, changed or unchanged provided that appropriate credit to author(s) is given, a link provided to the license, and any changes are indicated. Information on copyright issues in Finland is given by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Kopiosto</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Trace</em> is a scientific journal that doesn't pursue economic gain. Instead, the purpose of the publishing contract is to acknowledge the moral rights of the author(s) to their work and make possible the distribution of results of scientific research in the <em>Trace</em> journal in print as well as in digital form.&nbsp;</p> <p>The license concerning the metadata of published articles is Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).</p> <p class="P6_borderEnd">More information about open science in Finland:</p> <p class="P7"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> The elephants who appealed to the gods: Animal agency in the Roman arena and the human perception of it <p>According to our Roman sources, especially the account of Pliny the Elder, an unusual feature of the appearance of elephants in a staged hunt in Pompey’s games of 55BCE was sympathy for them shown by the crowd. With a particular emphasis on this incident and elephants, this article discusses the agency of nonhuman animals who were required to do tricks, fight with one another and with humans, and act as executioners in the Roman arena, and the perception of it by the crowd and Roman authors. The main purpose of the shows was to satisfy the potentially disruptive urban masses and more fundamentally, to emphasize the power of Rome to control forces beyond its administrative authority and external to its cultural mores. Animals were not able to understand the forces that brought them to the arenas or resist in any organised manner, but as sentient beings they did act in ways the trainers could not predict or control. In so doing, in all cases but refusal to attack they contributed to the excitement of events, and in the case of the elephants of the 55BCE games, even caused the normally hostile spectators to empathize with their plight. When Roman spectators or writers attributed human-like traits to animals who did extraordinary things they tacitly acknowledged animal agency, but this was not transformed into any general acceptance that animals might have any moral sense or cognitive abilities comparable in any way to humans. <span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Philip Line Copyright (c) 2022 Philip Line 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 10.23984/fjhas.102865 Domestication and domination: Human terminology as a tool for controlling otherthanhuman animal bodies <p>The language of domestication enables humans to wield power over otherthanhuman animal lives. In some cases, being labelled “domesticated” ensures a life free of worry regarding food, water, and shelter. In others, “domestication” embodies a loss of agency, wildness, and potentially life. Companion animals such as cats find themselves at the center of debates regarding their freedom, reproductive agency, and even their status as domesticates. Others, such as captive elephants, are trapped in liminal spaces by virtue of their labels — “endangered,” “domesticated,” “tamed,” or simply “livestock.” As humans venture further into the world of biotech, these labels become increasingly opaque. With the introduction of hybrid xenobots, transgenic organisms grown of various stem cells, and machine-implanted, sentient species built to serve various functions, we are facing the potential that the word domestication will be again transformed allowing humans to further control the future of otherthanhuman bodies.</p> Michelle Szydlowski Kristine Hill Sarah Oxley Heaney Jes Hooper Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Michelle Szydlowski, Dr. Kristine Hill, Sarah Oxley-Heaney, Jes Hooper 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 10.23984/fjhas.110388 Members only? A posthuman view of otherthanhuman-animal immigrants across human-defined borders <p>The movement of otherthanhuman-animals (henceforth OTHA) across human-defined borders are often categorised depending upon human-assigned categories such as ‘invasive’, ‘introduced’, ‘non-native’ or ‘migrating’. However, there is a paucity of literature categorising OTHAs, from a posthuman, anthrozoological view, as immigrants.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>This paper examines, through the dual lenses of posthumanism and anthrozoology, five scenarios for OTHA immigrants. First, how pigs became pawns in America’s New World, due to the continued unwillingness of humans to see the agency of OTHAs; secondly, what does the action of co-immigrating with our companion-animals say about our relationships with the accompanying OTHA? Next, whether the UK, a self-declared ‘nation of animal lovers’ is suffering from zoo-xenophobia, a form of xenophobia towards immigrant dogs?<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Then, an examination of elephant-human interactions in Nepal across Nepalese-Indian borders seems to indicate that tensions should decrease as the elephant immigrant population declines, but is not the case. Finally, how zoo-animal immigration, means an OTHA’s belonging to a zoological collection is often transitory in nature and so not afforded citizenship. Each case discusses the fluidity of OTHA immigrant membership of a human-constructed category, which may waiver as the OTHA is able to fulfill human needs or become an unwitting transgressor of social and political desires, fears and conflicts.</p> Sarah Oxley Heaney Kristine Hill Michelle Szydlowski Jes Hooper Thomas Aiello Copyright (c) 2022 Sarah Oxley Heaney, Kristine Hill, Michelle Szydlowski , Jes Hooper, Thomas Aiello 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 10.23984/fjhas.110811 Interspecies emotion management: The importance of distinguishing between emotion work and emotional labour <p>This paper presents the importance of the informed and nuanced distinction and use of the terms “emotion work” and “emotional labour” when referring to interspecies work. When emotional labour is acknowledged as a professional skill across species, two realities can be recognised and therefore acted upon. Firstly, it clarifies that emotional labour is performed by workers with formal jobs during working hours. By extension, the second reality arises, that emotional labour is a professional skill requiring preparation, education, and ongoing support. Using the terms emotion work and emotional labour muddies and weakens this argument. This paper rests at the intersection of emotion management and animal labour studies, two fields that have thus far predominantly run parallel, despite a critical need for their interdisciplinary engagement.</p> Tiamat Warda Copyright (c) 2022 Tiamat Warda 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 10.23984/fjhas.111345 Kamot: The first academic investigation of human-shark conflict in Sundarbans <p>This article is the first comprehensive scholarly introduction to the century-old conflict between humans and ‘<em>Kamots</em>’ (the local term for sharks) in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, India. Historically, humans predated on sharks, and sometimes, the sharks predated on humans. Utilizing a multispecies and knowledge system lens, this article explores the conflict between two species who effectively impact each other’s lives and waterscapes they share in the brackish contact zone of the Hooghly River. Primarily based on local knowledge system, we create some baseline information about this conflict and attempt to describe the local understanding of Kamot; incidents of Kamot bites and the circumstance of occurrence; the effect of these bites on the people, how they were treated, and finally attempt to identify the traumatogenic sharks of the region which might be associated with the bites. </p> Raj Sekhar Aich Priyankar Chakraborty Copyright (c) 2022 Raj Sekhar Aich, Priyankar Chakraborty 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 10.23984/fjhas.110497 Natalie Khazaal & Núria Almiron (toim.): Like an Animal. Critical Animal Studies Approaches to Borders, Displacement, and Othering (Kirja-arvio) Tiina Ollila Copyright (c) 2022 Tiina Ollila 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Emma Thorsen: Dyrenes by. Hover, klover og klør i Kristiania 1859–1925 (Book Review) Taina Syrjämaa Copyright (c) 2022 Taina Syrjämaa 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Tuure Tammi et. al: Lasten ja eläinten suhteet. Monilajista yhteiseloa (Kirja-arvio) Marianna Koljonen Copyright (c) 2022 Marianna Koljonen 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Tomaž Grušovnik et al. (eds.): Environmental and Animal Abuse Denial. Averting Our Gaze (Book Review) Nathan Poirier Copyright (c) 2022 Nathan Poirier 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Editorial Pauliina Rautio Copyright (c) 2022 Pauliina Rautio 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Muurahaiset <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Muurahaiset on taiteellisen tutkimuksen essee, kuvaus yhden teoksen synnystä ja yritys kokeilla luovempaa kirjoittamisen tapaa osana väitöstutkimustani, jossa etsin erilaisia tapoja kertoa eläintä ja ottaa muunlajiset huomioon itseisarvoisina olentoina. Toteutin muunlajisten kieltä tarkastelevan </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Muurahaiset</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> -teoksen osana posthumanistista taiteilijoiden ja filosofien symposiumia ja työpajaa. Teos esitettiin kesällä 2020 Foreign Objekt -kollektiivin </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Limitrophy</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> -verkkonäyttelyssä ja yksityisnäyttelyssäni</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Vedessä, maassa, ilmassa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Turussa Galleria Joellassa. Työapajassa keskityttiin posthumanististen maailmoiden tekemiseen, mikä pohjautui Nelson Goodmanin (1978) teoriaan. Oma posthumanistinen maailman tekemiseni liittyy ei-inhimillisen huomioon ottamiseen ja eettiseen kanssakäymiseen muunlajisten kanssa: haluan muuttaa vallitsevaa tilannetta ja esittää uusia, eläimiä arvostavia taiteen tekemisen muotoja.</span></p> Outimaija Hakala Copyright (c) 2022 Outimaija Hakala 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Lokkien kertomisesta <p>Eläimen kertomisen mahdollisuuksia pohtiva Voiko-tutkimushanke asetti tieteentekijöistä ja taiteilijoista koostuvan ryhmän tarkastelemaan tapoja, joilla taiteessa käsitellään ihmisen ja eläimen rajaa, myös rajan merkitystä ja olemassaoloa kyseenalaistaen. Tässä esseessä analysoin, miten Matilda Aaltosen ja Pipsa Longan teokset - tanssiesitys ja näytelmä- kertovat lokkeja ja miten tällainen eläinten kertomisen tapa haastaa perinteisiä tapoja kertoa ja nähdä eläimet ja asettaa niiden maailma ihmisyhteiskunnista erilliseksi.&nbsp;</p> Matilda Aaltonen Salla Tuomivaara Copyright (c) 2022 Salla Tuomivaara, Matilda Aaltonen 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Tutkimusesittely: Pro gradu -tutkielma sanomalehtien supikoirakirjoituksista Ville Malila Copyright (c) 2022 Ville Malila 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8 Meat May Never Die <p>The goal of ethical veganism is a vegan world or, at least, a significantly vegan world. However, despite the hard work done by vegan activists, global meat consumption has been increasing (Saiidi 2019; Christen 2021). Vegan advocates have focused on ethics but have ignored the importance of tradition and identity. And the advent of veggie meat alternatives has promoted food that emulates animal products thereby perpetuating the meat paradigm. I suggest that, in order to make significant changes toward ending animal exploitation, ethical vegans give more attention to tradition and identity. Furthermore, I propose that raw veganism is the most ethical diet and can be the best way to move away from animal-based food.</p> Carlo Alvaro Copyright (c) 2022 Carlo Alvaro 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 8